Our work on an Influenza nasal spray adjuvant vaccine is ongoing.
Nanoemulsion, a water-in-oil formulation stabilized by small amounts of surfactant, is non-toxic to mucous membranes and produces biocidal activity against enveloped viruses.We evaluated nanoemulsion as an adjuvant for mucosal influenza vaccines. Mice (C3H/HeNHsd strain) were vaccinated intranasally with 5×105 plaque forming units (pfu) of influenza A virus (Ann Arbor/6/60 strain) and a nanoemulsion mixture. The mice were challenged on day 21 after immunization with an intranasal lethal dose of 2 × 105 pfu of virus. Animals
vaccinated with the influenza A/nanoemulsion mixture were completely protected against infection, while animals vaccinated with either formaldehyde-killed virus or nanoemulsion alone developed viral pneumonitis and died by day 6 after the challenge. Mice vaccinated with virus/nanoemulsion mixture had rapid cytokine responses followed by high levels of specific anti-influenza immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. Specificity of the immune response was confirmed by assessment of the proliferation and cytokine
production in splenocytes. This paper demonstrates that nanoemulsion can be employed as a non-toxic mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus vaccine. See these studies here:
Myc A, Kukowska–Latallo JF, Bielinska AU, Cao Z, Myc PP, Janczak K, Sturm T, Grabinski MS, Landers JJ, Young KS, Chang J, Hamouda T, Olszewski MA, and Baker JR, Jr: Development of immune response that protects mice from viral pneumonitis after a single intranasal immunization with influenza A virus and nanoemulsion. Vaccine, 2003:21(25–26), 3801–3814.